The most effective approach khổng lồ sharply reducing the legacy of Agent Orange in Vietnam giới is khổng lồ focus assistance khổng lồ health & disabilities services in the provinces which were heavily sprayed with dioxin and on clean-up of dioxin hotspots at former U.S. military bases.

Bạn đang xem: Over and over

To highlight these areas, we employ the great amount of historical data available from Jeanne Stellman and her colleagues at Columbia University on the areas that were sprayed with herbicides và more recent data on dioxin concentrations at hotspots from Office of Committee 33/Hatfield Consultants.

We encourage you to explore the following maps using Google Earth. To use this mapping tool, you will need lớn tải về a tệp tin that will open on your own computer using Google Earth. There you will find an interactive sầu bản đồ lượt thích the maps below, where you can learn about specific locations by zooming in & clicking for more information. The Google Earth-based tool was developed by the War Legacies Project.

*
Google Earth image of heavily sprayed provinces in Vietnam giới (outlined in xanh & purple). Dioxin hotspots become visible on the maps by using Google Earth to zoom in on provinces.

*
Google Earth image of the Da Nang Airbase (outlined in red above) in central Vietphái nam. One of the two principal dioxin hotspots is located inside the Da Nang Airbase.

*
Google Earth image of the Bien Hoa Airbase (outlined in red above) in Bien Hoa city 50 kms. north of Ho Chi Minh City. This is the second principal dioxin hotspot; it is located at the Bien Hoa Airbase. Office of Committee 33/ Hatfield Consultants studies have confirmed that these two hotspots have sầu dioxin contaminated soils and sediments above or near the Vietnamese National Standard of 1,000 ppt TEQ for soil và 150 ppt TEQ for pond sediments.

*
Google Earth image of central Vietphái mạnh. The Phu Cat Airbase, located in Binch Dinh province (red dot in lower right above) was also used as a base for Agent Orange spraying. In 2012 the Vietnamese Ministry of Defense & the UNDP/Global Environmental Facility (GEF) completed the containment of dioxin và Phu Cat has been removed from the danh sách of dioxin hotspots. Two heavily sprayed provinces—Binc Dinh và Kon Tum—are outlined in purple (above).

Setting Priorities: Addressing the Heavily Sprayed AreasTwelve sầu provinces were the most heavily sprayed with Agent Orange during the war. Ten of them cluster around one of the three air bases that became the most contaminate with dioxin: Da Nang, Phu Cat và Bien Hoa.


Da Nang Cluster
Thừa Thiên Huế1.125%9trăng tròn,4971,2443rd
Quảng Nam/Đà Nẵng2.48%665,4318997th
Quảng Trị0.617%613,0628289th
4.1 2,198,990
Phu Cat Cluster
Kon Tum0.411%818,3401,1064th
Binh Dinh1.510%450,81760910th
1.91,269,157
Bien Hoa Cluster
Đồng Nai2.641%1,785,8972,4131st
Bình Phước/Bình Dương2.524%1,714,6092,3172nd
Tây Ninh1.123%690,1609335th
6.2 4,190,666

Today these ten provinces are home lớn over 12 million Vietnamese. These provinces need assistance for individuals and families burdened with disabilities & to restore forest cover and the productivity of farming soils in ways that create jobs and lead to lớn higher incomes. See Dialogue Group: Second Year Report, pages 9-19.

Setting Priorities: Addressing the Human NeedA public private partnership (PPP) is being used lớn address the human needs in Cam Le District in Da Nang. The PPP. has enrolled all of the 165 children with disabilities in Cam Le District in the Hope System of Care and 17 of the 1đôi mươi young adults. One of the children in the Hope System of Care is Nguyen Thi Ly, born in 2001 with a deformed face, head và chest. Ly’s grandfather was a soldier stationed in Quang Binh during the war. His two daughters, Ly’s mother and her sister, are disabled. Ly’s father is a bricklayer. The Hope System of Care has provided nutritional supplements and a scholarship for Ly, a new roof for the family’s house & a small loan lớn Ly’s mother khổng lồ raise pigs. The pholớn below shows Ly at school.

*
Catherine Karnow

Setting Priorities: Addressing Dioxin “Hot Spots”

Da Nang AirbaseThe Da Nang airbase was a major Ranch Hand facility during the American War in Vietphái nam. Nearly 11 million liters of Agent Orange were handled on the base. Today, several areas on the Da Nang Base including the loading, storage and mixing areas & Sen Lake to lớn the north & the Pacer Ivy area at the south of the base have sầu been confirmed lớn have high levels of dioxin.

Levels of dioxin have been found to be as much as 365,000 ppt TEQ, more than 365 times the Vietnamese standard for soil.

In a joint US-Vietphái nam project funded by USAID and the Ministry of Defense, 72,900 cubic meters of soil and sediment will be decontaminated using in-pile thermal desorption giải pháp công nghệ. The contaminated soil & sediment will be placed in a closed structure which is being built at the airbase. The soil & sediment will be heated khổng lồ a minimum of 335 degrees Celsius (635 degrees Fahrenheit) and held at that temperature for 28 days lớn break the dioxin into lớn non-toxic compounds. The project was officially launched on August 9, 2012 và is expected lớn be finished in 2016.

Bien Hoa AirbaseThe Bien Hoa Airbase is also a priority hotspot. Over the last decade, scientists from the government of Vietphái nam working with international experts have identified soils contaminated with dioxin. In early 2013 the Ministry of Defense và USAID will begin more detailed studies leading lớn the full remediation of the contaminated soils over the next several years. Dioxin is toxic to lớn human health and exposure khổng lồ it has been associated with numerous specific disabilities. Highly contaminated soil from the former storage area has been contained in a landfill, however there are other sites on the base (including lakes) that are in need of clean-up.

Phu Cat AirbaseOver 3.5 million liters of Agent Orange were located on the Phu Cat base during the American war in Vietphái mạnh. Several areas of the Phu Cat base were found to have elevated levels of dioxin requiring remediation (above 1000 ppt in soil or 150 ppt in sediment). The Ministry of Defense & UNDP/Global Environmental Facility (GEF) removed the 7,000 cubic meters of dioxin contaminated sediment & soil on the base & placed it in a secure landfill. The Government of Vietphái mạnh has now removed Phu Cat from the danh mục of dioxin hot spots.

Xem thêm: Cách Làm Thế Nào Để Con Trai Yêu Mình, Làm Thế Nào Để Chàng Luôn Cần Bạn

Learn more about the ongoing cleanup và the important impact of government and donor support in the USAID Cleanup Progress Reports.