The most effective approach khổng lồ sharply reducing the legacy of Agent Orange in Vietnam giới is khổng lồ focus assistance khổng lồ health & disabilities services in the provinces which were heavily sprayed with dioxin and on clean-up of dioxin hotspots at former U.S. military bases.
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To highlight these areas, we employ the great amount of historical data available from Jeanne Stellman and her colleagues at Columbia University on the areas that were sprayed with herbicides và more recent data on dioxin concentrations at hotspots from Office of Committee 33/Hatfield Consultants.
We encourage you to explore the following maps using Google Earth. To use this mapping tool, you will need lớn tải về a tệp tin that will open on your own computer using Google Earth. There you will find an interactive sầu bản đồ lượt thích the maps below, where you can learn about specific locations by zooming in & clicking for more information. The Google Earth-based tool was developed by the War Legacies Project.
Setting Priorities: Addressing the Heavily Sprayed AreasTwelve sầu provinces were the most heavily sprayed with Agent Orange during the war. Ten of them cluster around one of the three air bases that became the most contaminate with dioxin: Da Nang, Phu Cat và Bien Hoa.
|Da Nang Cluster|
|Thừa Thiên Huế||1.1||25%||9trăng tròn,497||1,244||3rd|
|Quảng Nam/Đà Nẵng||2.4||8%||665,431||899||7th|
|Phu Cat Cluster|
|Bien Hoa Cluster|
|Bình Phước/Bình Dương||2.5||24%||1,714,609||2,317||2nd|
Today these ten provinces are home lớn over 12 million Vietnamese. These provinces need assistance for individuals and families burdened with disabilities & to restore forest cover and the productivity of farming soils in ways that create jobs and lead to lớn higher incomes. See Dialogue Group: Second Year Report, pages 9-19.
Setting Priorities: Addressing the Human NeedA public private partnership (PPP) is being used lớn address the human needs in Cam Le District in Da Nang. The PPP. has enrolled all of the 165 children with disabilities in Cam Le District in the Hope System of Care and 17 of the 1đôi mươi young adults. One of the children in the Hope System of Care is Nguyen Thi Ly, born in 2001 with a deformed face, head và chest. Ly’s grandfather was a soldier stationed in Quang Binh during the war. His two daughters, Ly’s mother and her sister, are disabled. Ly’s father is a bricklayer. The Hope System of Care has provided nutritional supplements and a scholarship for Ly, a new roof for the family’s house & a small loan lớn Ly’s mother khổng lồ raise pigs. The pholớn below shows Ly at school.
Setting Priorities: Addressing Dioxin “Hot Spots”
Da Nang AirbaseThe Da Nang airbase was a major Ranch Hand facility during the American War in Vietphái nam. Nearly 11 million liters of Agent Orange were handled on the base. Today, several areas on the Da Nang Base including the loading, storage and mixing areas & Sen Lake to lớn the north & the Pacer Ivy area at the south of the base have sầu been confirmed lớn have high levels of dioxin.
Levels of dioxin have been found to be as much as 365,000 ppt TEQ, more than 365 times the Vietnamese standard for soil.
In a joint US-Vietphái nam project funded by USAID and the Ministry of Defense, 72,900 cubic meters of soil and sediment will be decontaminated using in-pile thermal desorption giải pháp công nghệ. The contaminated soil & sediment will be placed in a closed structure which is being built at the airbase. The soil & sediment will be heated khổng lồ a minimum of 335 degrees Celsius (635 degrees Fahrenheit) and held at that temperature for 28 days lớn break the dioxin into lớn non-toxic compounds. The project was officially launched on August 9, 2012 và is expected lớn be finished in 2016.
Bien Hoa AirbaseThe Bien Hoa Airbase is also a priority hotspot. Over the last decade, scientists from the government of Vietphái nam working with international experts have identified soils contaminated with dioxin. In early 2013 the Ministry of Defense và USAID will begin more detailed studies leading lớn the full remediation of the contaminated soils over the next several years. Dioxin is toxic to lớn human health and exposure khổng lồ it has been associated with numerous specific disabilities. Highly contaminated soil from the former storage area has been contained in a landfill, however there are other sites on the base (including lakes) that are in need of clean-up.
Phu Cat AirbaseOver 3.5 million liters of Agent Orange were located on the Phu Cat base during the American war in Vietphái mạnh. Several areas of the Phu Cat base were found to have elevated levels of dioxin requiring remediation (above 1000 ppt in soil or 150 ppt in sediment). The Ministry of Defense & UNDP/Global Environmental Facility (GEF) removed the 7,000 cubic meters of dioxin contaminated sediment & soil on the base & placed it in a secure landfill. The Government of Vietphái mạnh has now removed Phu Cat from the danh mục of dioxin hot spots.
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Learn more about the ongoing cleanup và the important impact of government and donor support in the USAID Cleanup Progress Reports.